Rapier Vs Katana
While there are no substantial records of duels between Western and Japanese swordsmen, such a matchup provides an interesting discussion subject for students of the blade. One way of looking at the possible outcomes of such a duel is to study the intent behind the design of each weapon.
Not the flimsy foil used in sport fencing, the true fighting rapier is more stoutly contructed. Its design is optimized for using the point (for thrusting) and the speed of the weapon is legendary. In the hands of a skilled fighter, the quickness of the attacks make it a difficult weapon to counter. In its time, the rapier-wielder would almost always be facing an unarmoured opponent (the advent of firearms making armor just so much useless weight), where the blade would not be required to hack through or be encumbered by armour.
This is in contrast to the katana which was designed as a weapon during the almost continous state of civil war between rival warlords before the rise of the Shogunate. Intended to defeat the light armour of the period, the Japanese katana is well known for its cutting ability. Even an offhanded cut can easily sever an arm, especially when used in the traditional kenjutsu two-handed approach. Unlike the rapier, the katana had to be ready to hack through the brigandine (leather and metal) armour in use in its day. Its curved cutting edge allows it to cut deeply on a push or pull stroke making it deadly even at close quarters.
To win an encounter with a katana-armed opponent, the rapier swordsman would have to keep his distance. However, the rapier is ill suited to a static defensive strategy as its blade is unable to parry heavy blows. Instead, the Western swordsman should be looking out for a chance to attack by employing lightning-quick thrusts to the head, chest or throat of his opponent. Even if the thrusts are not fatal, they would slow the opponent and set up a chance for a real killing blow. The rapier-wielder has to be careful of the katana's cutting ability - one stroke is usually enough to end any fight.
On one hand the Japanese swordsman must be wary advancing forward due to the rapier's speed which would probably make nonsense of any blocking techniques possible with the katana. On the other hand, going on the offensive is a good idea, since the katana could probably beat aside any defense by brute power and still reach the rapier-wielder. The fearsome cutting power means that any cuts that do land leave terrible wounds - severing the hand, leg, or head of the opponent ends the duel immediately.
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